Fundamental Nursing Chapter 32 Oral Medications Inst.: Dr. Ashraf El

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Fundamental Nursing Chapter 32 Oral Medications Inst.: Dr. Ashraf El - Jedi

Medication Orders A medication order lists the drug name and directions for its administration. Usually physicians or dentists write a medication order. 2

Components of a Medication Order All medication orders must have seven components: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. Client's name Date and time the order is written Drug name Dose to be administered Route of administration Frequency of administration Signature of the person ordering the drug 3

If any one of these components is absent, the nurse must withhold the drug until he or she has obtained the missing information . Medication errors are serious. 4

Drug Name Each drug has a trade name (name that the pharmaceutical company who made the drug uses). Drugs also have a generic name (chemical name not protected by a company's trademark), 5

Drug Dose The dose means the amount of drug to administer 6

Route of Administration The route of administration means how the drug is given, which may be by the oral, topical, inhalant, or parenteral route 7

The oral route (administration of drugs by swallowing or instillation through an enteral tube) facilitates drug absorption through the gastrointestinal tract. It is the most common route for medication administration because it is safer, more economical, and more comfortable than others. Medications administered by the oral route come in both solid and liquid forms. 8

Frequency of Administration The frequency of drug administration refers to how often and how regularly the medication is to be given. Frequency of administration is written using standard abbreviations of Latin origin. Some common examples include the following: 9

Stat—immediately b.i.d.—twice a day t.i.d.—three times a day q.i.d.—four times a day q.h.—hourly q4h—every 4 hours 10

Verbal and Telephone Orders Verbal orders are instructions for client care that are given during face-to-face conversations. Telephone orders are obtained from a physician during a telephone conversation. When obtaining phone orders, it is important to repeat the dosages of drugs and to spell drug names for confirmation of accuracy. Some nurses ask a second nurse to listen to a telephone order on an extension. 11

Storing Medications Each health agency has one area for storing drugs. Some agencies keep medications in a mobile cart; others store them in a medication room. 12

Accounting for Narcotics Health agencies keep narcotics in a double locked drawer, box, or room on the nursing unit. Because narcotics usually are delivered by stock supply, nurses are responsible for an accurate account of their use. Nurses count narcotics at each change of shift. 13

Medication Administration Safety is the main concern in medication administration. Taking various precautions before, during, and after each administration reduces the potential for medication errors. Some precautions include ensuring the five rights of medication administration, calculating drug dosages accurately, preparing medications carefully, and recording their administration. 14

Applying the Five Rights To safeguard against medication errors, nurses follow the five rights of medication administration. Some nurses have added a sixth right, the right to refuse. 15

Calculating Dosages One of the major nursing responsibilities, and one of the five rights, is preparing the dose accurately. 16

Box 32-1 Drug Calculation Formula 17

Administering Oral Medications Nurses prepare and bring oral medications to the client's bedside in a paper or plastic cup . The nurse administers only those medications that he or she has personally prepared; never administer medications pre-pared by another nurse. 18

Administering Oral Medications by Enteral Tube When a client cannot swallow oral medications, they can be instilled by enteral tube. After administering the drug, the nurse clamps or plugs the tube for at least 30 minutes to prevent removing the drug before it leaves the stomach. Nurses can give medications while a client is receiving tube feedings, but they instill the medications separately—that is, they do not add the medications to the formula. 19

Documentation Nurses document medication administration on the MAR, the client's chart, or both as soon as possible. Timely documentation prevents medication errors 20

Medication Errors Medication errors happen. As soon as he or she recognizes an error, the nurse checks the client's condition and reports the mistake to the prescriber and supervising nurse immediately. Health care agencies have a form for reporting medication errors called an incident sheet or accident sheet 21

Nursing Implications Deficient Knowledge Risk for Aspiration Ineffective Therapeutic Regimen Management Ineffective Health Maintenance Noncompliance 22

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