Designing A Base Pay Structure After determining internal

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Designing A Base Pay Structure After determining internal equity relationships among jobs, and Identifying competitive pay practices in the market place, The next order of business is the design of a pay structure. 1

Designing A Base Pay Structure The Architects of the Pay Structure Must: Establish a pay policy line. Design pay grades using pay grade minimum and maximum and desired spreads of the range. Determine overlap between pay grades. Determine if the organization needs more than one pay structure and why. 2

Compensation Policy Guidelines Decisions that provide guidelines for the compensation manager to follow in developing a pay structure are made at the highest levels of the organization. 3

Compensation Policy Guidelines THESE POLICY DECISIONS INCLUDE: Minimum and maximum levels of pay. The general relationship among pay levels. Whether or not the pay structure should lead or lag or lag\lead the market. The division of the total compensation dollar. 4

Compensation Policy Guidelines Additionally Senior management decides how best to administer its pay policies. How much, to whom, when, where and how. 5

Pay Structure Design Questions and Issues What is the lowest rate of pay that can be offered and still hire desirable employees ? What is the rate of pay necessary to retain employees ? Will the organization want to recognize seniority and merit through the base pay schedule ? 6

Pay Structure Design Questions and Issues Is it wise or necessary to offer more than one rate of pay to employees performing either identical or similar kinds of work ? What is considered to be a sufficient difference in base rates of pay among jobs in a class-series that requires varying levels of knowledge, skills, responsibilities, and duties. 7

Pay Structure Design Questions and Issues Does the organization wish to recognize dangerous working conditions in its base pay schedule ? Should there be a difference in changes in base pay progression opportunities among jobs of varying worth ? 8

Pay Structure Design Questions and Issues Do employees have a significant opportunity to progress to higher level jobs ? If so, what should be the relationship between promotion to a higher job and changes in base pay ? Will policies and regulations permit incumbents to earn rates of pay higher than established maximums and lower than established minimums ? What should be the reasons for allowing such deviations ? 9

Pay Structure Design Questions and Issues How will the pay structure accommodate across-the-board, cost-of-living, or other adjustments not related to employee tenure, performance, or responsibility and duty changes ? 10

Pay Structure Architecture With the generation of internal and external pay data and information, managers are now ready to design a pay schedule. To do so they must: Determine a trend or pay policy line. Decide on the need for one or more pay structures. 11

Pay Structure Architecture Display job data Establish the characteristics of the pay structure (number, width, and height of pay grades, and overlap) Lock overlapping pay structures (when using more than one) 12

Determining A Pay Policy Line Each organization must develop its own pay policy line, which is a trend line or line of best fit that best represents the middle value of jobs that have been evaluated or classified to have particular worth. 13

Determining A Pay Policy Line The procedure most organizations follow in establishing a pay policy or trend line is to identify the market rates for various benchmark jobs that cover the entire spectrum from lowest to highest rates of pay. By plotting on a chart the pay-rate information obtained through surveys, a scatter diagram or scatter plot can be developed. 14

Determining A Pay Policy Line Different procedures are available for developing a trend line from a scatter diagram.Line of sight.Two-point. And the least squares methods. Another simple procedure is to obtain the market rate or going rate of pay for the lowest and highest paid jobs. Connecting these points can also provide a first approximation for a pay policy line. 15

Determining A Pay Policy Line Many organizations use the pay policy line to set midpoint values for all their jobs. Pay policy lines are useful when plotting survey data and comparing them with the internal pay structure. From the pay policy line, organizations establish the minimum and maximum pay levels, the relationship between pay grades, and the range of a pay grade. 16

The Need For More Than One Pay Structure There are a number of logical and rational considerations for having multiple pay structures that focus on the forces that influence the actual pay of the various occupational groups comprising most organizations. 17

The Need For More Than One Pay Structure A major reason for using multiple pay structures is that rates of pay for more advanced jobs increase geometrically rather than linearly. 18

The Need For More Than One Pay Structure It is not unusual for large organizations to have at least three pay structure lines: Blue collar manual labor, craft, and trade workers. Nonexempt white collar salaried workers. Managerial, administrative, and professional exempt employees. 19

The Need For More Than One Pay Structure Some organizations have a fourth pay structure for their highly paid executives. 20

Displaying Job Data Even when there is an apparent need for more than one trend line or pay policy line that would lead to more than one pay structure, there is a statistical procedure for avoiding multiple structures. 21

Displaying Job Data This procedure allows pay data to be presented by means of some form of curvilinear relationship rather than a relationship that must be a straight line. A pay structure using arithmetic progression will produce a straight pay police line. 22

Displaying Job Data Geometric progression where pay rates vary by some constant rate of increase will produce a curved pay policy line. To display a geometric progression in a straight line a logarithmic scale is used. 23

Displaying Job Data Two values of central tendency most used in analyzing pay relationships are the: Mean Median When the market value or going rate of a job is being determined, the average value or mean is frequently the value selected. 24

Displaying Job Data But it is not always the best choice. In the final analysis it depends on the distribution of the data. 25

Identifying The Lowest And Highest Rates Of Pay In identifying the lowest rate of pay it is important to pay attention to: Legal requirements. The prevailing union scales in local markets. All area wage scales. 26

Identifying The Lowest And Highest Rates Of Pay A high low-end rate pushes all rates too high.And a low low-end rate promotes to much turnover. Highest rates of pay are a more subjective consideration. 27

Identifying The Lowest And Highest Rates Of Pay The highest and lowest average values should be the midpoint of the pay for those jobs assigned this rate when there is a range of pay available for each category. 28

Determining Progression From Lowest To Highest Pay Rate The basic design criterion that determines pay differences in moving through a pay structure is the midpoint-to-midpoint differences. Midpoint-to-midpoint pay difference is the percentage change in the middle value from one adjacent pay grade to the next. 29

Determining Progression From Lowest To Highest Pay Rate Midpoint-to-midpoint pay progressions range from as low as 3% to as high as 25%. and possibly higher is some cases. 30

Determining Progression From Lowest To Highest Pay Rate Normally, low midpoint-to-midpoint differences are found in pay structures of lower-paid, unskilled, semiskilled, and clerical employees. High differences are found in pay structures of the executives and the senior managers of an organization. 31

Determining Progression From Lowest To Highest Pay Rate The following issues should be considered when determining the appropriate midpointto-midpoint differences: The smaller the difference between midpoints the more pay rates available to assign to a specific job. The more rates of pay the more opportunity for assigning different rates of pay to jobs with minor differences. 32

Determining Progression From Lowest To Highest Pay Rate The greater the differences between pay rates the easier it is for jobholders to perceive differences in worth between jobs. A small difference between midpoints may force an organization to have more than one pay structure. 33

Determining Progression From Lowest To Highest Pay Rate For jobs at the lower end of the pay structure, a 6% to 7.5% difference in midpoints may be appropriate; For those in the middle of the pay structure an 8% to 10% difference would typically apply; and At the executive end of the structure the difference would normally range from 15% to 25%. 34

Developing Pay Grades Pay grades are nothing more than convenient groupings of a wide variety of jobs or classes similar in work difficulty and complexity requirements but possibly having nothing else in common. 35

Developing Pay Grades It may provide for a single rate, or it may allow for a range of pay within a certain grade. The top or maximum rate of pay of a pay grade states that this is the most that work produced by a job in this grade is worth to the organization. The bottom places a minimal value on the contributions of the assigned job. 36

Developing Pay Grades The distance between minimum and maximum recognizes the range of performance and experience of incumbents in the assigned job(s). 37

Of Pay Grade Systems Each grade provides for a range of pay. Within a pay grade range there is a minimum, a midpoint, and a maximum pay. The range from the minimum to the maximum within a single pay grade may vary from 20 to 100 percent. The most common range is from 30 to 50 percent. 38

Of Pay Grade Systems The number of steps within a grade may also vary. Grades having steps will normally have from 3 to 10 steps, with 6 to 7 in-grade steps most common. There is a direct relationship between the rate of increase per step and the number of steps within a grade. 39

Of Pay Grade Systems The midpoint of each pay grade is normally a constant percentage greater than the one preceding it. This percentage normally varies from 5 to 10 percent. Adjoining pay grades normally overlap. If there is a 30 percent range within a pay grade and there is a 10 percent difference between midpoints, there will be a 67 percent overlap. 40

Of Pay Grade Systems The requirements of the organization will provide answers to the correct number of grades, the number of steps within grades, and their rates of progression within and between grades. 41

Of Pay Grade Systems The number of pay grades to be included within a pay structure varies with the circumstances-there is no right number. 42

Pay Structure Terms Single-Rate Pay Grade A flat rate structure that appears in organizations in which pay rate negotiations between management and unions are common practice, in some small organizations, or in industries using skilled craftworkers. 43

Pay Structure Terms Multiple-Point Pay Structure Some organizations that use pointfactor job evaluation plans establish a rate of pay for every possible point score. 44

Pay Structure Terms Broadbanding The grouping of jobs of significant differences or worth or value within one band or pay grade. 45

Pay Structure Terms Broadbanding (cont) This pay grouping or expanded pay grade may have a range varying from 50 percent to 100 percent and include jobs that have responsibilities and duties that vary in complexity and difficulty and require significantly different knowledge and skills. 46

Pay Structure Terms Range or Spread Dimension The difference between the upper and lower limits of the grade. It may be expressed in absolute dollar amounts or as a percentage. 47

Pay Structure Terms Pay Grade Width Procedures for establishing a pay grade width are not as specific or precise as those related to the spread or height of the pay grade. When using a point-factor plan, points often are the x axis values. 48

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