11 Slides4.05 MB
The Effects of Music for People Starting Exercise By Charlie Stevens 20084150
The aims of this presentation: To see what benefits music can provide whilst exercising What type of music will motivate the most? Will listening to personalised music motivate individuals to stay exercising?
Benefits of exercise: Reduced risk of heart disease Reduced risk of type 2 diabetes Reduced risk of some cancers Preservation of body function with age (Blair, 2009) Regular physical activity contributes to the primary and secondary prevention of several chronic diseases and is associated with a reduced risk of pre-mature death. (Warburton, Nicol & Bredin, 2006) “All healthy adults aged 18-65 years should aim to take part in at least 150 min of moderate-intensity exercise each week, or at least 75 min of vigorous-intensity activity per week”
Most common barriers that are associated with starting exercise: Arzu, Tuzin & Eker (2006), found the most common barriers to exercise in university students: Lack of energy Lack of motivation Lack of self-confidence Lack of resource Lack of support Lack of time Possible solutions to prevent exercise barriers when starting exercise: Something is always better than nothing Start small and build momentum Break up activities during the day so it fits into your schedule Make it easy on yourself by removing obstacles Reward yourself
Benefits of listening to music: Music improves exercise performance by either delaying fatigue or increasing work capacity Results suggest a higher-than-expected levels of endurance, power, productivity or strength The psychological effects of music on exercise include the way in which music influences mood, emotion, feelings of pleasure/displeasure, cognition and behavior (Karageorghis & Priest, 2012) Evidence demonstrates that music has consistent and measurable effects on the behavior and psychological states of male and female exercise participants. Music can also positively influence performance by improving endurance and/or exercise intensity. When music is selected according to its motivational qualities, the positive impact on performance and psychological states are even greater, which has important implications for exercise adherence” (Karageorghis, Terry, Lane, Bishop & Priest, 2011)
Continued benefits: Personal and/or situational songs can improve the performance and morale of the individual This can motivate someone to continue exercising by keeping a rhythm (exercise adherence) Music can help the individual focus on themselves rather than everything else that is going on around them (Karageorghis & Priest, 2012) The transtheoretical model: People beginning activity fall in-between the Preparation and Action stages of this model. (Nigg, Geller, Motl, Horwath, Wertin & Dishman, 2011) Music can encourage people who are starting exercise, helping them reach the maintenance
What music motivates you? Not all music appeals for everyone Individuals will feel a personal connection with some songs/playlists, reminding them of positive/motivational memories Tempo changes within music can improve technique and stride perfection for athletes “There should be a stronger preference for high-tempo music during physical activity, although some research has indicated that slower tempi may increase physiological efficiency and thus prolong exercise performance” The are no stereotypes when it comes to what music people listen to Anthony Bateman & John Bale (2009)
Examples of music-based exercises:
In summary Music encourages motivation, confidence and belief in ones own abilities Music provides a rhythm for exercise (weights and cardio) Music provides improved emotions, pleasure and behaviors while exercising Listening to music while exercising can increase your work capacity Finding a balance between exercise and other commitments Managing/organising exercise plans encourages commitment Find activities near you Personalised song selection while exercising boosts selfesteem, developing exercise adherence Find your musical motivation
Key readings: 1. Karageorghis, C. I., & Priest, D. (2012a). Music in the exercise domain: A review and synthesis (Part I). International Review of Sport and Exercise Psychology, 5, 44–66. doi:10.1080/1750984X.2011.631026 2. Karageorghis, C. I., Terry, P. C., Lane, A. M., Bishop, D. T., & Priest, D. L. (2011). The BASES expert statement on the use of music in exercise. The Sport and Exercise Scientist, (28), 18-19. 3. Martin, A. J. (2008). How domain specific is motivation and engagement across school, sport, and music? A substantive–methodological synergy assessing young sportspeople and musicians. Contemporary educational psychology, 33(4), 785-813. 4. Anthony Bateman & John Bale (2009). Sporting Sounds: Relationships between sport and music. London and New York: Routledge. 5. Hallett, R., & Lamont, A. (2015). How do gym members engage with music during exercise?. Qualitative Research in Sport, Exercise and Health, 7(3), 411-427.
References: Anthony Bateman & John Bale (2009). Sporting Sounds: Relationships between sport and music. London and New York: Routledge. Arzu, D., Tuzun, E. H., & Eker, L. (2006). Perceived barriers to physical activity in university students. Journal of sports science & medicine, 5(4), 615. Blair, S. N. (2009). Physical inactivity: the biggest public health problem of the 21st century. British journal of sports medicine, 43(1), 1-2. Karageorghis, C. I., & Priest, D. (2012a). Music in the exercise domain: A review and synthesis (Part I). International Review of Sport and Exercise Psychology, 5, 44–66. doi:10.1080/1750984X.2011.631026 Karageorghis, C. I., Terry, P. C., Lane, A. M., Bishop, D. T., & Priest, D. L. (2011). The BASES expert statement on the use of music in exercise. The Sport and Exercise Scientist, (28), 18-19. Nigg, C. R., Geller, K. S., Motl, R. W., Horwath, C. C., Wertin, K. K., & Dishman, R. K. (2011). A research agenda to examine the efficacy and relevance of the transtheoretical model for physical activity behavior. Psychology of sport and exercise, 12(1), 7-12. O'Donovan, G., Blazevich, A. J., Boreham, C., Cooper, A. R., Crank, H., Ekelund, U., . & Hamer, M. (2010). The ABC of Physical Activity for Health: a consensus statement from the British Association of Sport and Exercise Sciences. Journal of sports sciences, 28(6), 573-591. Warburton, D. E., Nicol, C. W., & Bredin, S. S. (2006). Health benefits of physical activity: the evidence. Cmaj, 174(6), 801-809.