9 Management of Quality McGraw-Hill/Irwin Copyright © 2007 by The

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9 Management of Quality McGraw-Hill/Irwin Copyright 2007 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All

Learning Objectives Define the term quality. Explain why quality is important and the consequences of poor quality. Identify the determinants of quality. Describe the costs associated with quality. Describe the quality awards. 9-2

Learning Objectives Discuss the philosophies of quality gurus. Describe TQM. Give an overview of problem solving. Give an overview of process improvement. Describe and use various quality tools. 9-3

Quality Management What does the term quality mean? Quality is the ability of a product or service to consistently meet or exceed customer expectations. 9-4

Evolution of Quality Management 1924 - Statistical process control charts 1930 - Tables for acceptance sampling 1940’s - Statistical sampling techniques 1950’s - Quality assurance/TQC 1960’s - Zero defects 1970’s - Quality assurance in services 9-5

Quality Assurance vs. Strategic Approach Quality Assurance Emphasis on finding and correcting defects before reaching market Strategic Approach Proactive, focusing on preventing mistakes from occurring Greater emphasis on customer satisfaction 9-6

The Quality Gurus Walter Shewhart “Father of statistical quality control” W. Edwards Deming Joseph M. Juran Armand Feignbaum Philip B. Crosby Kaoru Ishikawa Genichi Taguchi 9-7

Key Contributors to Quality Table 9.2 Management Contributor Known for Deming 14 points; special & common causes of variation Juran Quality is fitness for use; quality trilogy Feignbaum Quality is a total field Crosby Quality is free; zero defects Ishikawa Cause-and effect diagrams; quality circles Taguchi Taguchi loss function Ohno and Shingo Continuous improvenment Q uali ty 9-8

Dimensions of Quality Performance - main characteristics of the product/service Aesthetics - appearance, feel, smell, taste Special Features - extra characteristics Conformance - how well product/service conforms to customer’s expectations Reliability - consistency of performance 9-9

Dimensions of Quality (Cont’d) Durability - useful life of the product/service Perceived Quality - indirect evaluation of quality (e.g. reputation) Serviceability - service after sale 9-10

Examples of Quality Dimensions Dimension (Product) Automobile (Service) Auto Repair 1. Performance Everything works, fit & finish Ride, handling, grade of materials used Interior design, soft touch All work done, at agreed price Friendliness, courtesy, Competency, quickness Clean work/waiting area 2. Aesthetics 3. Special features Gauge/control placement Location, call when ready Cellular phone, CD Computer diagnostics player 9-11

Examples of Quality Dimensions (Cont’d) Dimension (Product) Automobile (Service) Auto Repair 5. Reliability Infrequency of breakdowns Work done correctly, ready when promised 6. Durability Useful life in miles, resistance to rust & corrosion Work holds up over time 7. Perceived quality Top-rated car Award-winning service department 8. Serviceability Handling of complaints and/or Handling of complaints requests for information 9-12

Service Quality Convenience Reliability Responsiveness Time Assurance Courtesy Tangibles 9-13

Examples of Service Quality Table 9.4 Dimension Examples 1. Convenience Was the service center conveniently located? 2. Reliability Was the problem fixed? 3. Responsiveness Were customer service personnel willing and able to answer questions? 4. Time How long did the customer wait? 5. Assurance Did the customer service personnel seem knowledgeable about the repair? 6. Courtesy Were customer service personnel and the cashier friendly and courteous? 7. Tangibles Were the facilities clean, personnel neat? 9-14

Challenges with Service Quality Customer expectations often change Different customers have different expectations Each customer contact is a “moment of truth” Customer participation can affect perception of quality Fail-safing must be designed into the system 9-15

Determinants of Quality Design Ease of use Conforms to design Service 9-16

Determinants of Quality (cont’d) Quality of design Intension of designers to include or exclude features in a product or service Quality of conformance The degree to which goods or services conform to the intent of the designers 9-17

The Consequences of Poor Quality Loss of business Liability Productivity Costs 9-18

Responsibility for Quality Top management Design Procurement Production/operations Quality assurance Packaging and shipping Marketing and sales Customer service 9-19

Costs of Quality Failure Costs - costs incurred by defective parts/products or faulty services. Internal Failure Costs Costs incurred to fix problems that are detected before the product/service is delivered to the customer. External Failure Costs All costs incurred to fix problems that are detected after the product/service is delivered to the customer. 9-20

Costs of Quality (continued) Appraisal Costs Costs of activities designed to ensure quality or uncover defects Prevention Costs All TQ training, TQ planning, customer assessment, process control, and quality improvement costs to prevent defects from occurring 9-21

Ethics and Quality Substandard work Defective products Substandard service Poor designs Shoddy workmanship Substandard parts and materials Having knowledge of this and failing to correct and report it in a timely manner is unethical. 9-22

Quality Awards Baldrige Award Deming Prize 9-23

Malcolm Baldrige National Quality Award 1.0 Leadership (125 points) 2.0 Strategic Planning (85 points) 3.0 Customer and Market Focus (85 points) 4.0 Information and Analysis (85 points) 5.0 Human Resource Focus (85 points) 6.0 Process Management (85 points) 7.0 Business Results (450 points) 9-24

Benefits of Baldrige Competition Financial success Winners share their knowledge The process motivates employees The process provides a well-designed quality system The process requires obtaining data The process provides feedback 9-25

European Quality Award Prizes intended to identify role models Leadership Customer focus Corporate social responsibility People development and involvement Results orientation 9-26

The Deming Prize Honoring W. Edwards Deming Japan’s highly coveted award Main focus on statistical quality control 9-27

Quality Certification ISO 9000 Set of international standards on quality management and quality assurance, critical to international business ISO 14000 A set of international standards for assessing a company’s environmental performance 9-28

ISO 9000 Standards Requirements System requirements Management Resource Realization Remedial 9-29

ISO 9000 Quality Management Principles Customer focus Leadership People involvement Process approach A systems approach to management Continual improvement Factual approach to decision making Mutually beneficial supplier relationships 9-30

ISO 14000 ISO 14000 - A set of international standards for assessing a company’s environmental performance Standards in three major areas Management systems Operations Environmental systems 9-31

ISO 14000 Management systems Systems development and integration of environmental responsibilities into business planning Operations Consumption of natural resources and energy Environmental systems Measuring, assessing and managing emissions, effluents, and other waste 9-32

Total Quality Management A philosophy that involves everyone in an organization in a continual effort to improve quality and achieve customer satisfaction. T Q M 9-33

The TQM Approach 1.Find out what the customer wants 2.Design a product or service that meets or exceeds customer wants 3.Design processes that facilitates doing the job right the first time 4.Keep track of results 5.Extend these concepts to suppliers 9-34

Elements of TQM 1. Continual improvement 2. Competitive benchmarking 3. Employee empowerment 4. Team approach 5. Decisions based on facts 6. Knowledge of tools 7. Supplier quality 8. Champion 9. Quality at the source 10. Suppliers 9-35

Continuous Improvement Philosophy that seeks to make neverending improvements to the process of converting inputs into outputs. Kaizen: Japanese word for continuous improvement. 9-36

Quality at the Source The philosophy of making each worker responsible for the quality of his or her work. 9-37

Six Sigma Statistically Having no more than 3.4 defects per million Conceptually Program designed to reduce defects Requires the use of certain tools and techniques Six sigma: A business process for improving quality, reducing costs, and increasing customer satisfaction. 9-38

Six Sigma Programs Six Sigma programs Improve quality Save time Cut costs Employed in Design Production Service Inventory management Delivery 9-39

Six Sigma Management Providing strong leadership Defining performance metrics Selecting projects likely to succeed Selecting and training appropriate people 9-40

Six Sigma Technical Improving process performance Reducing variation Utilizing statistical models Designing a structured improvement strategy 9-41

Six Sigma Team Top management Program champions Master “black belts” “Black belts” “Green belts” 9-42

Six Sigma Process Define Measure Analyze Improve Control DMAIC 9-43

Obstacles to Implementing TQM Lack of: Company-wide definition of quality Strategic plan for change Customer focus Real employee empowerment Strong motivation Time to devote to quality initiatives Leadership 9-44

Obstacles to Implementing TQM Poor inter-organizational communication View of quality as a “quick fix” Emphasis on short-term financial results Internal political and “turf” wars 9-45

Criticisms of TQM 1. Blind pursuit of TQM programs 2. Programs may not be linked to strategies 3. Quality-related decisions may not be tied to market performance 4. Failure to carefully plan a program 9-46

Basic Steps in Problem Solving 1.Define the problem and establish an improvement goal 2.Define measures and collect data 3.Analyze the problem 4.Generate potential solutions 5.Choose a solution 6.Implement the solution 7.Monitor the solution to see if it accomplishes the goal 9-47

Figure 9.2 The PDSA Cycle Plan Act Do Study 9-48

The Process Improvement Cycle Figure. 9.3 Select a process Document Study/document Evaluate Seek ways to Improve it Implement the Improved process Design an Improved process 9-49

Process Improvement Process Improvement: A systematic approach to improving a process Process mapping Analyze the process Redesign the process 9-50

Process Improvement and Tools Process improvement - a systematic approach to improving a process Process mapping Analyze the process Redesign the process Tools There are a number of tools that can be used for problem solving and process improvement Tools aid in data collection and interpretation, and provide the basis for decision making 9-51

Basic Quality Tools Flowcharts Check sheets Histograms Pareto Charts Scatter diagrams Control charts Cause-and-effect diagrams Run charts 9-52

Check Sheet Billing Errors Monday Wrong Account Wrong Amount A/R Errors Wrong Account Wrong Amount 9-53

80% 80% of of the the problems problems may may be be attributed attributed to to 20% 20% of of the the causes. causes. Number of defects Pareto Analysis Off Smeared Missing Loose Other center print label 9-54

Figure 9.11 Control Chart 1020 UCL 1010 1000 990 LCL 980 970 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 9-55

Cause-and-Effect Diagram Figure 9.12 Methods Cause Environment Materials Cause Cause Cause Cause Cause Cause People Cause Cause Cause Cause Effect Cause Equipment 9-56

Diameter Run Chart 0.58 0.56 0.54 0.52 0.5 0.48 0.46 0.44 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 Time (Ho urs ) Time (Hours) 9-57

Tracking Improvements Figure 9-18 UCL UCL LCL LCL Process centered Process not centered and stable and not stable UCL LCL Additional improvements made to the process 9-58

Methods for Generating Ideas Brainstorming Quality circles Interviewing Benchmarking 5W2H 9-59

Quality Circles Team approach List reduction Balance sheet Paired comparisons 9-60

Benchmarking Process Identify a critical process that needs improving Identify an organization that excels in this process Contact that organization Analyze the data Improve the critical process 9-61

Video: Control Mtgs. 9-62

Video: Teaching Suppliers 9-63

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